The theory for Dual Coding was developed in the 1960’s by Allan Paivio. The theory states that people learn via separate systems but related systems (verbal and non-verbal). For example, your brain stores the image for pie in a different place than it stores the word pie. But the systems can work together, that is why you will visualize a pie when someone is talking about pies. And seeing an image of pie will often cause you to think of the word pie.
In order to utilize the dual coding strategy in your classroom, you need to use both verbal and nonverbal (visual) materials together. This is helpful because it gives your and your students’ brains two pathways to remember the information, one visual (with the image) and one “verbal” (with the written words).
In science, a great way to incorporate dual coding is to use diagrams. Diagrams contain both a written and a visual component. Giving your students multiple pathways to remembering, while also being streamlined. They are streamlined because they only hold the most relevant information. You can do this by having diagrams be part of your class notes.
This will allow students to have guided practice in making and organizing diagrams. Then, you can model how to read and interpret the diagram. After students are comfortable with making and reading basic diagrams you can have students use the diagrams to answer extension questions. This will have your students practicing the elaboration learning strategy along with the dual coding learning strategy, which should compound their effectiveness.
I have applied this strategy in my 5th grade science courses. We are studying the water cycle and climate (2 units that lend themselves perfectly to dual coding). I have had them create diagrams explaining the water cycle, transpiration, rainshadow, low pressure systems, and high pressure systems. Then we have added information that shows how to increase the rates of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, and sublimation. The goal, by adding these details are to help students see how each step is affected by its environment, and to give greater understanding in how each step works.
I have also had students use their diagrams to write a paragraph explain the process of the water cycle or rain shadow. The goal here, is that they understand the diagrams enough to express what they show.
How do you use dual coding in your classroom?