Research Apértif: Quizzing in Middle-School Science: Successful Transfer Performance on Classroom Exams

According to dictionary.com, an apértif is a small drink of alcoholic liqueur taken to stimulate the appetite before a meal. This research apértif is likewise designed to stimulate your mind’s appetite.

If you enjoy the appetizer, click-through at the bottom of the page for the main course!

Background Research/Lit Review

1. the act of retrieving answers to questions during testing can enhance and modify memory for the tested information
2. A limitation: most studies have used identical questions on initial and final tests
3. Recall, then rereading produces a higher success rate on application questions than reading alone
4. Initial quizzing on target concepts may promote performance (relative to no quizzing) on novel application exam questions
5. Multiple choice quizzing effects are generally smaller than short-answer quizzing effects

Experiment 1

1. 142 seventh grade science students participated in the study: Final sample was 61 students
2. Quiz questions required matching a term to a definition. Test questions required matching a definition to a term. Testing near transfer.
3. three quizzes: pre-lesson after reading the chapter, post-lesson, and 24hrs before the exam
4. Quizzes improved term-response exam performance by 12-15%
5. Quizzes improved definition-response exam performance by 9-10%
6. Quizzing promoted near transfer of target content in a classroom setting

Experiment 2

1. 142 eighth-grade science students: Final sample included 90 eighth-grade science students
2. Focused on application questions (more required transfer than experiment 1)
3. three quizzes: pre-lesson after reading the chapter, post-lesson, and 24 hrs before the exam
4. Quizzing with application questions improves final test performance on related application questions.
5. Quizzing with term-response questions does not improve final test performance on related application questions

Discussion of Experiments

1. Spaced testing with feedback enhances the flexibility of knowledge
2. Quizzing application concepts in a concrete context promoted transfer and better retention of definitional information on a final test
3. repeated multiple choice quizzes with feedback can enhance performance on novel exam questions
4. Term-response questions did not increase performance on application exam items

Link to Article
Quizzing in Middle-School Science: Successful Transfer Performance on Classroom Exams

Citation
Mcdaniel, M. A., Thomas, R. C., Agarwal, P. K., Mcdermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2013). Quizzing in Middle-School Science: Successful Transfer Performance on Classroom Exams. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 360–372. doi: 10.1002/acp.2914

How to Teach Critical Thinking: A Summary’s Summary

Critical Thinking Can Be Taught

1. Teach strategies and principals and integrate those principals into your teaching

Teaching Critical Thinking for General Transfer

1. Transfer is only possible when there is a relationship between topics.
-Ex: Writing a paragraph will not improve your ability to use a shading technique in drawing
2. Even seemingly related topics do not always allow for transfer.
-Ex: Estimating the area of rectangles does not improve ability to estimate the area of other geometric shapes
3. Teaching general critical thinking skills leads to limited success

Transfer And The Nature Of Critical Thinking

1. Critical thinking is not a generalizable skill because “analyze, synthesize, and evaluate” mean different things in different disciplines
2. Goals for critical thinking must be domain specific
3. There are some logic rules that transfer across domains, but students will struggle to apply them to new, unfamiliar domains

Critical Thinking As Problem Recognition

1. Challenges to transferring knowledge: Deep and Surface Structure
-Deep structures: Deep structures are often abstract and difficult to understand. Understanding the deep structure requires many examples (rich knowledge of surface structure)
-Surface structures
2. Speed recognition of deep structure
-problem comparison (2 worked examples with differing surface structure and the same deep structure)
-Teach the sub-steps of a process (label the sub-steps) to make knowledge more flexible

Open-Ended Problems And Knowledge

1. Critical thinking for routine and open-ended problems relies on extensive stores of domain knowledge.
2. Knowledge helps by…
-Improving the recognition process
-Allowing working memory to treat disparate groups as pieces of a single unit. (Frees up space in your working memory)
-Enabling you to deploy thinking strategies
3. Even experts struggle to think critically outside of their domain of expertise!

How To Teach Students To Think Critically (4 Steps)

1. Identify what is meant by critical thinking in your domain. Be specific.(Think like a scientist is not a helpful goal.) Identify what tasks would demonstrate critical thinking. Explicitly teach and have students deliberately practice said tasks.
2. Identify the domain content students must know. Identify the knowledge students need to successfully complete the tasks in step 1. This will involve uncomfortable, but necessary trade-offs. We interpret new information in light of what we know.
3. Choose the best sequence to learn the skills and knowledge.
4. Decide which skills and what knowledge should be revisited across years

Link to Article

How to Teach Critical Thinking

Research Apértif: Retrieval Practice, with or without Mind Mapping, Boosts Fact Learning in Primary School Children

According to dictionary.com, an apértif is a small drink of alcoholic liqueur taken to stimulate the appetite before a meal. This research apértif is likewise designed to stimulate your mind’s appetite.

If you enjoy the appetizer, click-through at the bottom of the page for the main course!

Background Research/Lit Review

1. Most experimental evidence for retrieval practice is with adults. Most studies with children have been with children aged 11 and up.
2. Retrieval practice can be effectively incorporated into the curriculum w/ low/no-stakes quizzing . Retrieval practice has been shown to be beneficial for 6th grade students (aged 11-12) performance on delayed exams.
3. retrieval practice has been shown to be effective w/ children aged 6-14 for learning nonsense syllables and biographical material.
4. Retrieval Practice helps with learning fictional map locations compared to ‘study only’ in children aged 9-11
5. Concept mapping can be combined with retrieval practice for better results than concept mapping or retrieval practice alone (undergraduate students)


Experiment Setup

1. Students aged 8-12
2. Used simple mind mapping
3. Cross-factorial design to test effects of retrieval practice and mind mapping and their combination
Experiment 1
1. 109 students
2. The number of facts recorded in the learning phase was significantly related to the final test score
3. Retrieval practice group recalled more facts than the non-retrieval practice group.
4. Mind maps did not improve results for retrieval practice group. But mind maps did improve results for non-retrieval practice group


Experiment 1 Discussion

1. Retrieval practice effect is reliably found in elementary school children
2. Children in retrieval practice group had significantly higher recall after 4 days than the non-retrieval practice group
3. Mind mapping is more effective than note-taking, but less effective compared to retrieval practice. And mind mapping does not improve retrieval practice in elementary aged students.


Experiment 2 Setup (replication of experiment 1)

1. 209 students aged 8-12
2. shorter learning phase, interval between learning and testing phase=1 week
3. Final test after 5 weeks to assess longer-term outcomes


Experiment 2

1. Retrieval practice group recalled significantly more facts than the non-retrieval practice group
2. Retrieval practice alone was more effective than retrieval practice with mind mapping and mind mapping alone after both 1 week and 5 weeks


Experiment 2 Discussion

1. Elementary teachers would benefit their students by including retrieval practice in the curriculum.
2. Retrieval practice improves elementary student fact recall better than mind mapping
3. Mind mapping with retrieval practice does not improve learning in elementary students
4. Retrieval practice groups recalled 8.5% more facts than the non-retrieval group on the final assessment 5 weeks later

Link to Article

Retrieval Practice, with or without Mind Mapping, Boosts Fact Learning in Primary School Children

Citation

Ritchie SJ, Della Sala S, McIntosh RD (2013) Retrieval practice, with or without mind mapping, boosts fact learning in primary school children. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78976.

Research Apértif: Guided Retrieval Practice of Educational Materials Using Automated Scoring

According to dictionary.com, an apértif is a small drink of alcoholic liqueur taken to stimulate the appetite before a meal. This research apértif is likewise designed to stimulate your mind’s appetite.

If you enjoy the appetizer, click-through at the bottom of the page for the main course!

Background Research/Lit Review

1. Retrieval practice improves long-term simple learning (lists, word pairs) and long-term complex learning (concepts, inferential questions).
2. Retrieval practice improves performance on conceptual and inferential questions.
3. Retrieving an item successfully just two times produces large gains in long-term memory.
4. Low-stakes quizzing (retrieval practice) in/out of the classroom can improve performance.
5. Effectiveness of retrieval practice outside of the classroom depends on students’ ability to monitor and regulate their own learning. Students struggle to regulate their own learning!
6. Students are unaware of retrieval practice’s benefits.
7. Students do not choose repeated retrieval.
8. When students choose to study with retrieval practice, they cannot accurately assess if their answer is right or wrong. (They believe they retrieved a correct answer even when it was false!)

Experiments and Findings

1. Authors created QuickScore to automatically, objectively grade retrieval practice on human anatomy.
2. Experiments examined the effects of repeated study vs repeated retrieval.
3. Final test given after 2 days.
4. 68 Purdue undergraduate students participated.

Experiment 1a and 1b Findings

1. Performance topped off after 4th session for both repeated study and repeated retrieval (initial learning is ~the same rate)
2. For the final test (after 2 days), in both experiments, students in the repeated retrieval condition (70% correct) outperformed those in the repeated study condition (55% correct).
3. False negatives (wrongly marked incorrect by QuickScore) increased learning because it resulted in additional exposure & retrieval chances.
4. QuickScore is significantly better at assessing student performance than students themselves are.

Link to Article

Guided Retrieval Practice of Educational Materials Using Automated Scoring

Citation

Grimaldi, P. J., & Karpicke, J. D. (2013, June 24). Guided Retrieval Practice of Educational Materials Using Automated Scoring. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0033208

Research Apértif: Practice Tests, Spaced Practice, & Successive Relearning

According to dictionary.com, an apértif is a small drink of alcoholic liqueur taken to stimulate the appetite before a meal. This research apértif is likewise designed to stimulate your mind’s appetite.

If you enjoy the appetizer, click-through at the bottom of the page for the main course!

Lit Review

1. Summary of 10 learning techniques
2. Self-explanation and elaborative interrogation hold promise, but need more classroom evidence
3. Interleaving is gaining evidence as an effective learning strategy

Most Effective

1. Spaced Practice and Practice Testing: Both have been proven in the classroom and work well for a variety of content, student ages, and student abilities
2. Successive Relearning: Combines practice testing with spaced practice across multiple sessions.

Using Practice Testing and Spacing While Teaching

1. Practice tests with feedback increase student performance, improves meta-cognition, and increases student ability to transfer what they ahve learned.
2. Regular practice testing and reduce test anxiety
3. Successive Relearning has been found to increase test performance by around 10% and increases long-term retention for months

Link To Article

Practice Tests, Spaced Practice, and Successive Relearning: Tips for Classroom Use and for Guiding Students’ Learning

Citation

Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2015). Practice tests, spaced practice, and successive relearning: Tips for classroom use and for guiding students’ learning. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1(1), 72-78. doi:10.1037/stl0000024

Research Apértif: Across Domain Transfer

According to dictionary.com, an apértif is a small drink of alcoholic liqueur taken to stimulate the appetite before a meal. This research apértif is likewise designed to stimulate your mind’s appetite.

If you enjoy the appetizer, click-through at the bottom of the page for the main course!

Background Research/Lit Review

1. Productive Failure (PF) process: Exploration and Generation (activate prior knowledge), Consolidation and Knowledge Assembly
2. Learning about complex systems with computer models can help students learn complex systems principles and transfer their knowledge
3. Far across domain transfer can be encouraged by allowing two scenarios to be seen as embodying the same principal (lab only, so far)

Study

1. Female 9th grade students at a high-achieving all girls school in Australia used computers to understand climate change
2. Study was conducted in 6 class periods of 80 minutes
3. One group used a single climate model and wrote down the “key ideas”
4. the other group used two models (one climate model and one non-climate model w/ similar deep structure) to compare/contrast

Findings

1. Both groups improved in declarative and explanatory knowledge
2. Students taught by an expert teacher w/ high content knowledge showed significantly higher complex systems knowledge
3. Students taught by an expert teacher showed higher performance for near within domain transfer
4. Performance for the one model group were more dependent on the quality of the teacher
5. Two model group showed better far transfer regardless of teacher expertise

Implications

1. Prior knowledge activation and differentiation may give students more chances to practice and encode critical info for the studied concept
2. Highly contrasting models may activate more prior knowledge (of structural and surface features) allowing for more connections between prior and new knowledge (creating a more integrated schema, making schema abstraction more likely)
3. It is most effective to use maximally contrasting models, w/ same deep structure along w/ explicit teach instruction about the shared deep structures of each model

Link to Article

Schema Abstraction WIth Productive Failure And Anological Comparison: Learning Desings For Far Across Domain Transfer (Free for ~50 days)

Citation

Jacobson, M. J., Goldwater, M., Markauskaite, L., Lai, P. K., Kapur, M., Roberts, G., & Hilton, C. (2020). Schema abstraction with productive failure and analogical comparison: Learning designs for far across domain transfer. Learning and Instruction,65, 101222. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2019.101222

Research Apértif: Facts Before Higher-Ordered Learning?

According to dictionary.com, an apértif is a small drink of alcoholic liqueur taken to stimulate the appetite before a meal. This research apértif is likewise designed to stimulate your mind’s appetite. 

If you enjoy the appetizer, click-through at the bottom of the page for the main course!

Summary of Article

  1. Higher-ordered thinking increases with higher-ordered retrieval practice
  2. Fact quizzes do not facilitate higher-ordered learning
  3. Robust strategies for fact learning and far transfer of knowledge (retrieval practice, spaced practice, interleaving)
  4. Retrieval practice works in a vast array of settings with diverse learners, and diverse content

Study

Study combines 3 frameworks: Desirable Difficulties, Transfer Appropriate Processing, & Foundation of Factual Knowledge
Subjects: College psychology students, and middle school students

Findings

  1. Fact quizzing significantly increases final test fact question performance, but does not improve performance on higher-ordered questions
  2. Higher-ordered quizzing does not increase final test fact question performance, but does significantly increase performance on higher-ordered questions
  3. Mixed quizzes (fact & higher ordered) increase final test performance on both fact and higher ordered questions

Link to Article

Retrieval Practice & Bloom’s Taxonomy: Do Students Need Fact Knowledge Before Higher Order Learning?

Citation

Agarwal, P. K. (2019). Retrieval practice and Bloom’s taxonomy: Do students need fact knowledge before higher order learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111, 189-209.